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By Shuichi Kato

A brand new simplified version translated by means of Don Sanderson. the unique three-volume paintings, first released in 1979, has been revised especially as a unmarried quantity paperback which concentrates at the improvement of jap literature.

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Extra resources for A History of Japanese Literature: Volume 3: The Modern Years

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Kazan would be dead, however, before the American ships delivered their ultimatum and he continued to associate the threat from abroad, which he felt keenly, with Christianity. Shozan lived and wrote in an age which knew of the Opium War and the reality of gunboat diplomacy, and his insight into the true nature of colonialism and imperialism was outstanding. In fact his predictions for the future were to be proved right on all basic points even after the Restoration. There appears for example in Reflections on My Errors the phrase 'eastern morality, western arts', an expression which was, in a slightly different form, to become one of the slogans of the early years of the Meiji period.

You wander down that long long road they call'a hundred billion lands' and you get to a place where, they say, Buddhas sit on lotus leaves where even frogs weigh heavy .... there is one person on each leaf and the lotuses are growing up out of the water; it is not really all that pleasant a home for the poor souls ... just huddled up there, most unpleasant. THE NATIONAL POLITY AND 'DUTCH STUDIES' 15 The sensibility and intellect evident in this passage would not only have been mockingly dismissive of the Buddhist heaven but would also have found the Christian version hard to accept.

He continually compares features of western countries with Japan. Thus, since the beginning of the isolationist policy Japan has known nothing of the affairs of other nations, its warriors are unused to battle and have settled down to a life of humdrum administration and it has tried to drive off the foreign ships indiscriminately, despite a lack of expertise in gunnery. This, 'tragically enough', is the behaviour of a blind man who cannot see the snake or the deaf man who cannot hear the thunder.

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