By P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, A. Lebeda
P. T. N. SPENCER-PHILLIPS Co-ordinator, Downy mold operating staff of the foreign Society for Plant Pathology collage of the West of britain, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, united kingdom electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org it's a very nice privilege to jot down the preface to the 1st professional booklet on downy mildews because the significant paintings edited by way of D. M. Spencer in 1981. the belief for the current ebook arose from the Downy mould Workshop on the foreign Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) held in Edinburgh in August 1998. Our goal was once to ask studies on chosen points of downy mould biology from foreign professionals, and hyperlink those to a sequence of comparable brief contributions reporting new information. No try has been made to hide the breadth of downy mould learn, yet we are hoping that extra themes might be incorporated in destiny volumes, in order that this turns into the 1st of a chain following the 5 yr ICPP cycle.
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ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE It is not a coincidence nor is there a causal correlation that the occurrence of DM parasitism and the plants cultivated for food have depended on the production of secondary metabolites. The high levels of essential oils, mustard oils, and other secondary metabolites, that enhance the economic importance of crop plants in these taxa have rendered the plants vulnerable to the enzyme capacities and nutritional requirements of the DMs. Consider, for example, graminicolous grain crops (including flavour herbs such as Lemon Grass and sugar); pulses (plant proteins including enzymes); dicotyledonous grains (Amaranthus, Fagopyrum, Helianthus, Linum, Raphanus); green leaf (Brassicaceae, Lactuca, Chenopodium); tubers/roots (Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apiaceae, Alliaceae); and fruits (Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rosaceae).
The size, age and genetic diversity of genera can be very different. If the various genera of the DMs arose from different ‘pro-Phytophthora’ ancestors, then the genetic distance between selected monophyletic DM genera and a particular group of species of Phytophthora may be less than the genetic distances within Phytophthora sensu lato. , Phytophthora) may be greater than those between any recently evolved DM genera, even if these genera have arisen from different, though still relatively close, Phytophthora antecedents.
My hypothesis is that the propensity of Peronosporomycetes for the products of angiosperm secondary metabolism may be, simultaneously, the most important stimulus and constraint for their evolution. Secondary metabolite production may have been stimulated by high carbohydrate levels or C:N ratios that would otherwise be deleterious to the well-being of the angiosperm. Secondary biochemical pathways are thought by Ross and Sombrero (1991) to have evolved to remove excess photosynthate from the cell systems by producing osmotically inactive, secondary metabolites.
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