By Frederick F. Holmes M.D. (auth.)
The lifetime of a man or woman is finite, and all people age (see Fries 1980). it really is tricky to split the results of ailment on organs and tissues from these anticipated of getting older. this is often fairly precise for vascular and degenerative procedures, for which there are not any transparent barriers among getting older and illness. Morbidity and mortality from center disorder and stroke are most likely due either to affliction and to adjustments of getting older. For melanoma, the second one prime reason behind loss of life in the United States, the location is sort of varied; melanoma is obviously a illness and isn't a metamorphosis anticipated with getting older. melanoma prevalence raises nearly logarithmically after age forty. within the usa approximately one-half of all circumstances of melanoma are clinically determined after age sixty five, even supposing these over sixty five include below one-eighth of the inhabitants. hence, melanoma is particularly a lot a disorder of the aged. There are a minimum of purposes for this: first, the lengthy publicity to cancer-inducing brokers, and moment, the waning energy of immune defenses opposed to cancer.
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2 shows, there were not enough local cases in the early period to provide meaningful survival curves. Though 5-year survival is not tantamount to cure, the number of deaths from or with disease after 5 years at this stage is very small. This is somewhat in contrast to the impression that kidney cancer is often chronic, with late recurrence a common problem. At present surgery is the only instrument of cure, regardless of the patient's age, and the real benefits of radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain to be demonstrated.
Bladder cancer is the quintessential occupational or environmental disease. Rehn (1895) described the relationship of bladder cancer to chemical exposure in the dye industry in Germany in 1895. Studies since have implicated several compounds and it seems likely there are others yet unknown. It takes a mean exposure time of more than 20 years to produce a bladder cancer in this setting, and more than 25% of workers sufficiently exposed will eventually develop this tumor. Beyond this- there is, once again, a strong association with cigarette smoking (Cobb and Ansell 1965).
3. J :; :; 60 II: ~ II) 40 30 20 10 0 3 75-84 3 85-94 Fig. 4. Years survival by age and time groups for distantly spread uterine corpus cancer Distant 37 about 50%, and late recurrence of disease becomes a factor to consider. In spite of the fact that survival appeared better among the group of 75-84-year-olds in the 1950-1979 period, there is no significant difference. Treatment by radiotherapy at this stage has been relatively unchanged for many years, as evidenced by the essentially consistent results.
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