Download Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and by V.A. Lefebvre PDF

By V.A. Lefebvre

In this booklet moral platforms are defined within the language of arithmetic. more often than not arithmetic is believed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. easy utilized arithmetic bargains with reckoning and size, the place concrete amounts are gadgets of realization, equivalent to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with the aid of symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or a whole bunch corno hence, the 1st precept that shows the ability of arithmetic is abstraction. it truly is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. generally, guy communicates through phrases. W ords serve communique to the level that they check with issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. verbal exchange is winning to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases via the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded via the hearer. As is weH identified, the measure ofthis correspondence varies significantly in several contexts of discourse and with the again­ grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language during which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally special. This precision is accomplished by way of abstraction. summary phrases are outlined by means of their relatives to different phrases and through not anything else.

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Extra info for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems

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As a result we obtain two different ethical systems, and we suggest the hypo thesis that one ethical system is realized in American culture, and the other in Soviet culture. The hypothesis about differences between Soviet and American individuals is based on personal observations by the author and his friends and colleagues. There are no serious works demonstrating the difference between normative types of these cultures. However, even superficial observation shows that in American culture a display of aggressiveness (with corresponding gestures and mimics) is a sign ofbad manners and lack of restraint; in Soviet culture, this is evidence of 'having principles in the fight with life's defects' and is caused by objective conditions ofupbringing.

In tbis structure doubt is absent. Therefore, an absence of doubts implies the impossibility of feeling both guilt and condemnation at the same time. In tbis case an individual's transformation of a bad intention into a good action is impossible by awareness of evil. THE SECOND ETHICAL SYSTEM Structure 1: where A == aä • b and B == b. Suppose a = 0, Thus, A = 5 and B = b. Therefore if A doubts the correctness of bis image of himself and does not doubt that ofbis adversary, he feels guilty when he has a bad intention and his adversary has a good intention.

Let us eonsider individual äW • The root of this individual is ä (and not a I); therefore, the values of ä are the environmental demands. In our model an investigator does not see the demand before it is accepted by a system. Thus, it will be more precise to say that we assume the partieular demand was sent whieh was accepted by the system. The environmental demand aeeepted by the individual is a special intention of the individual to perform good or evil. So, when the root has the value 1, we eonsider that the individual has the intention of performing good; when the root is 0, we eonsider that the individual has the intention of performing evil.

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