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The poems suggest a region in different stages of development, with hunters and gatherers in some places and peasant villagers in others. The older clan-based political structure seems to have been giving way to kingdoms, which may reflect the spread of ideas and institutions from the north. At this point, the only cities in the Tamil country were apparently ports that traded with the Roman Empire and were dominated by foreign merchants. THE END OF ANCIENT INDIA After the Kushanas, North India seems to have broken into small kingdoms and oligarchies.

There are 199 million members of Scheduled Castes, who often refer to themselves as Dalits (“oppressed”) but are commonly called Untouchables in the West, and who historically formed the lowest division of Hindu society. Then come 103 million Indians belonging to Scheduled Tribes—until recently these people, known as Tribals, lived in forests and remote areas, as hunters and gatherers or shifting cultivators. Finally, depending on how they are defined, anywhere between 280 million and 620 million Hindus are included in the Other Backward Classes, which traditionally ranked immediately above Untouchables.

Devotional Hinduism spread through India during the first millennium CE, probably because it offered a spiritual comfort missing from Jainism and Buddhism. Jainism began to decline in the fourth century CE, and today there are fewer than 5 million Jains in India. It will be seen in the next chapter that Buddhism eventually disappeared altogether from its homeland. Meanwhile, foreign merchants brought other religions to India. Whatever the truth of a legend that the Apostle Thomas preached in India, we know that by the sixth century there were Christians in Kerala on the southwest coast.

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