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5 mm). See [66]. MRI Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to any NMR-active nuclei, such as protons. This allows one to distinguish different chemical environments in which these nuclei find themselves, including oil versus water. 15 shows a NMR reconstructed image slice taken through the centre of a complex, oil-continuous emulsion sample [97]. Additional examples can be found in [98]. As mentioned earlier, emulsions do not always occur in the idealized form of drops of one phase dispersed in another.

Thus an O/W microemulsion of even a crude oil in water may be transparent. If the droplets are of the order of 1 mm diameter a dilute O/W emulsion will take on a somewhat milky-blue cast; if the droplets are very much larger then the oil phase will become quite distinguishable and apparent. Physically the nature of the simple emulsion types can be determined by methods such as [95]: Texture The texture of an emulsion frequently reflects that of the external phase. Thus O/W emulsions usually feel “watery or creamy” while W/O emulsions feel “oily or greasy”.

For larger particles the theory is more involved [13,76]. 7 shows a schematic of a light-scattering apparatus, illustrating three techniques. In Fraunhofer diffraction (small-angle scattering) of the incident beam, size information can be obtained for large species (if the dispersed species are of the order of, or larger than, the wavelength of the incident light). In turbidimetry (centre-right) attenuation of the incident light can indicate the amount of dispersed phase, but does not provide information about size distribution.

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