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This day, while systematic philosophy - and cause itself - are challenged either open air of and inside philosophy, is it nonetheless attainable to do metaphysics? This quantity presents a wide viewpoint on modern methods to the character and the elemental questions of metaphysics.
Drawing on students from continental Europe, Asia, Canada, the USA, and nice Britain, and representing a number of philosophical cultures and traditions, this quantity surveys and extends paintings in metaphysics and its implications for broader philosophical issues (e.g., in ethics and social philosophy, in arithmetic and common sense, and in epistemology). It additionally addresses such questions because the function of historical past and historicity in project metaphysics, the character of metaphysics, the concern of metaphysics over epistemology, and the demanding situations of empiricism and postmodernism.

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Thomas. The proof of the first conclusion does not occasion much difficulty. 29 The proof of the ninth conclusion is more involved. The conclusion itself reads: … that by the same concept by which the wayfarer conceives of the creature it can conceive of the God, though the name signifying that concept is not said univocally of the God and the creature. [124A] He proceeds in two steps. First, he tackles sameness of concept, and secondly, non-univocity. Sameness of concept is presented by means of three texts of Thomas.

Thomas distinguishes three different relations of our concepts to things. Some concepts are direct likenesses of things. Some, such as “genus,” “species,” “definition,” result, not directly from things, but from our thinking about things. Some, such as fantasies, break away from things altogether. When the likeness is direct, then the ratio is properly said to be “in the thing,” inasmuch as there is in the thing a foundation for the ratio. In a secondary way, the logical “intentiones” and mathematical conceptions relate to things, and so they are not false; there is some foundation for them.

P. Here, the idea seems to be that “a being,” said of something which is not, nevertheless witnesses to what precedes all discussion. One might think of such a question as whether evil exists. It does, but it is not a nature and has no act of being. In affirming its “existence,” we are using the “exist” or “be” which expresses the truth of propositions, not the nature of real things. Cf. ad 2: there is a sense of “ens” which is interchangeable with “res,” and a sense which is not. The third argument from Scotus is: … the good, which is a property [passio] of ens, is not subjectively in the soul; but the subject is not of lesser entity than the property.

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