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Pests of Onion 45 Fig. 6. Tachinid parasitoid eggs on Spodoptera exigua larva Fig. 7. Larva of Spodoptera exigua infected by nucleopolyhedro virus Fig. 8. Larva of Spodoptera exigua killed by nucleopolyhedro virus Fig. 9. Larva of Spodoptera exigua killed by Nomurea rileyi Fig. 10. A microsporidian infecting a larva of Spodoptera exigua 46 Pests of Major Vegetable Crops Other remarks: There are several larval color phases, ranging from green to nearly black. Sometimes the dark-colored larvae are confused with other army worm species.

Dense populations cause the build-up of sooty mold which grows on the sugary solution secreted by the aphids. , and others. A number of parasitoid species also are important natural biological controls. During rainy weather, entomogenous fungi also infect these aphids. Other major pests are: Leaf miners: Pea leaf miner, Liriomyza huidobrensis; Serpentine leaf miner, L. sativae; stone leek leaf miner, L. chinensis; Chrysanthemum leaf miner, L. , Convolvulaceae) Sweet potato originated in South America and is an important food crop of poor farmers of the Old and New World tropics.

Onion, in particular, and other closely-related species are preferred. Life cycle: Adults are yellow-brown with dark transverse bands across the thorax and abdomen. They live 1–4 months depending on the temperature and humidity. The white eggs are inserted singly in the epidermis of the leaves and hatch in 4–10 days. Two nymphal instars and adults feed on the plant by rasping and sucking and the two pupal instars are found in the soil. The life cycle is completed in 3–5 weeks depending on temperature (Lewis, 1997) (Fig.

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