Download Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea by John Haugeland PDF

By John Haugeland

The concept human considering and desktop computing are "radically a similar" offers the crucial subject matter for this marvelously lucid and witty booklet on what synthetic intelligence is all approximately. even if offered solely in nontechnical

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Extra info for Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea

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But the meani1lgs of those symbols are not material obj ects (they are "abstract" or "conceptual" or some­ thing). The trouble is, they still have to affect the operation of the mechanism for the manipulations to be reasonable. Hence all the old embarrassments return about exerting forces without hav­ ing any mass, electric charge, etc. : meanings as such simply cannot affect a physical mechanism. But suppose this problem could be resolved . ) Would that finish the matter? Not quite; for the status of the manipulator remains disconcertingly unsettled.

Whether a given technique is positive depends heavily on what would count as success . Imagine, for instance, carefully measuring off six feet on a board, drawing a perpendicular line there with a square, and then sawing right along the line. Is that a positive technique? Well, it depends. If the specified goal is to get a board between five feet eleven inches and six feet one inch, then the technique can succeed totally; so it's positive. But &�i'JJsMa�� exactly six feet long, then 54 Chapter 2 t h e method is not positive, since it could succeed at best approximately.

But many important formal systems are important for reasons quite apart from amusement (computers being a salient case in point). A simple example of a formal system not involving competi tion (but still having a goal position) is the familiar solitaire game played with pegs on a board with a cross-shaped array of holes in it. The starting position appears below. The solid dots represent • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • holes with pegs in them, and the circle in the center represents an empty hole ( the only one in the starting position).

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