By Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin, American Society for Metals
ASM instruction manual, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging
Provides an in-depth evaluate of a couple of approaches lately brought or that experience come into reputation reminiscent of radial, rotary (orbital), precision, powder, and isothermal/hot-die forging. Plus superplastic sheet forming, and abrasive waterjet and laser slicing. New fabrics during this publication (containing 1,200 illustrations and 250 tables) relates to the advance of thermomechanical processing, rather in regards to aerospace alloys, and the advance of options and exams to figure out steel workability/formability relationships.
Read Online or Download ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G) PDF
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Extra resources for ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G)
B) Accumulator drive. See text for details. Direct drive presses for closed-die forging usually have hydraulic oil as the working medium. At the start of the downstroke, the return cylinders are vented allowing the ram/slide assembly to fall by gravity. The reservoir used to fill the cylinder as the ram is withdrawn can be pressurized to improve hydraulic flow characteristics, but this is not mandatory. When the ram contacts the workpiece, the pilot operated check valve between the ram cylinder and the reservoir closes, and the pump builds up pressure in the ram cylinder.
Other Drive Systems. In addition to direct friction and electric drives, several other types of mechanical, electric, and hydraulic drives are commonly used in screw presses. A relatively new screw press drive is shown in Fig. 13. A flywheel (1) supported on the press frame is driven by one or more electric motors and rotates at a constant speed. When the stroke is initiated, a hydraulically-operated clutch (2) engages the rotating flywheel against the stationary screw (3). This feature is similar to that used to initiate the stroke of an eccentric mechanical forging press.
Fig. 14 Examples of multiple-ram forgings. Displacement of metal can take place from vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal planes. Dimensions given in inches Piercing holes in a forging at an angle to the normal direction of forging force can result in considerable material savings, as well as savings in the machining time required to generate such holes. In addition to having the forging versatility provided by multiple rams, these presses can be used for forward or reverse extrusion.
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