By Claude E. Boyd
Aquaculture pond managers degree water-quality variables and try and hold them inside optimum levels for shrimp and fish, yet strangely little consciousness is paid to pond soil situation. Soil-water interactions can strongly effect water caliber, and soil components may be thought of in aquaculture pond administration. the significance of soils in pond administration may be illustrated with an instance from pond fertilization and one other from aeration. Pond fertilization won't produce phytoplankton blooms in acidic ponds. overall alkalinity is just too low to supply sufficient carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, and acidic soils adsorb phosphate extra in fertilizer earlier than phytoplankton can use it. Agricultural lime stone program can increase overall alkalinity and neutralize soil acidity. the volume of limestone essential to reason those alterations in a pond is determined by the bottom unsaturation and alternate acidity of the ground soil. ponds with an analogous overall alkalinity and soil pH could require tremendously diversified amounts of limestone simply because they fluctuate in alternate acidity. Aeration complements dissolved oxygen concentrations in pond water and allows higher feed inputs to reinforce fish or shrimp construction. As feeding charges are raised, natural subject accumulates in pond soils. In ponds with very excessive feeding premiums, aeration could provide sufficient dissolved oxygen within the water column for fish or shrimp, however it could be very unlikely to take care of cardio stipulations within the floor layers of pond soil. poisonous metabolites produced by means of microorganisms in anaerobic soils could input the pond water and damage fish or shrimp.
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Extra resources for Bottom Soils, Sediment, and Pond Aquaculture
The pH scale. I I 14 ) =1<,. = pH Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Properties of Soils I 45 The product of H+ and OH- is the ionization constant of water, and it is equal to 10- 14 at 25°C. Water is considered neutral (neither acidic or basic) because (H+) = (OH-). 21) The pH of pure water at 25°C is pH = -log(IO-7) = 7 A pH value below 7 indicates an acidic condition because (H+) > (OH-); a pH above 7 indicates a basic solution for (OH-) > (H+). The pH is a measure of the intensity of the H+ concentration, but acidity is the capacity of a substance to supply hydrogen ions.
Low, poorly drained areas are ideal environments for wetland development and formation of organic soils. 14 I Bottom Soils. Sediment. and Pond Aquaculture Some soils are fonned in place, and others fonn of sedimentary materials transported from another area. Climate is a dominant factor in soil fonnation. In cold climates, soil formation may be quite slow compared to wann climates. Soil is much more highly weathered and leached in a wann, humid climate than in a cold climate or wann, arid climate.
High temperature and rainfall accelerate both mechanical and chemical weathering, leaching, erosion, and transport. Biological activity in soil also is favored by high temperature and rainfall. Topography affects both erosion and transport, because water flowing over steep surfaces has more energy to suspend soil particles than does water flowing over gentler slopes. Low, poorly drained areas are ideal environments for wetland development and formation of organic soils. 14 I Bottom Soils. Sediment.
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