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By Marian Moffett, Michael Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse

This seriously illustrated survey has been accelerated in its moment version to supply scholars of either artwork heritage and of structure with a world creation to the background of architecture.

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Additional info for Buildings across Time: An Introduction to World Architecture (2nd Edition)

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More typical of Middle-Kingdom tombs are those at Beni Hasan, which are cut into rock cliffs and provided with sheltering porticoes (Fig. 31). Reflecting the politi­ cal importance of their builders, these tombs were con­ structed for minor nobles and court officials, who evidently enjoyed considerable influence and wealth. Most of the architectural character was created by excava­ tion, and the builders replicated spaces and details associ­ ated with ordinary dwellings, that is, wooden and CHAPTER 1 THE B E G I N N I N G S OF ARCH ITECTURE plastered reed structures with slightly arched roofs com­ posed of mats laid on the frame.

This period witnessed the development of urban temple forms, particularly the temple elevated on an arti­ ficial mound, or ziggurat. Commonly constructed of sun­ dried brick bonded with bitumen, reed matting, or rope, ziggurats were finished with a weather-resistant exterior layer of kiln-fired brick. From a rectangular base, the zig­ gurat rose with battered or inward-sloping walls in a series of stepped platforms, culminating in a high temple at the top. A flight of stairs set in the center of one side con­ nected the temple to the ground.

This plan includes the original earthworks. The central axis through the tril ithons set in a U shape in the center passes between perimeter stones to align with the heel stone set outside the circle. On the summer solstice, the sun rose precisely over the heel stone, when viewed from the center of Stonehenge. prosaic: archaeo-astronomer Gerald Hawkins demon­ strated that Stonehenge was a great observatory for deter­ mining the solstices (thus establishing the annual calendar) and predicting lunar and solar eclipses, knowl­ edge that could prove very useful in a society without almanacs.

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