By Keijiro Otsuka, C. Ford Runge
This selection of essays by means of Ruttan and Hayami spans their lengthy profession within the economics of technical and institutional swap. At either a theoretical and empirical point, their research of triggered innovation presents an outstanding starting place for figuring out how and why applied sciences and associations evolve in line with components that constrain them. Can financial progress Be Sustained? presents a sweeping clarification of this strategy. As students, Ruttan and Hayami's talents and reports complemented one another. jointly, that they had nice luck in operating throughout contexts to combine Western versions of technological switch and extra holistic Asian views on multi-factorial interplay. Their views are extensive ranging, overlaying huge geographical components and carefully interpreting the historic improvement of agriculture within the usa, Japan, and plenty of different nations. This quantity collects their so much influential papers, from which a lot will be discovered.
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Extra info for Can Economic Growth Be Sustained?: The Collected Papers of Vernon W. Ruttan and Yujiro Hayami
This assumption is permissible if the inputs actually used in agriculture during 1945–48 were reasonably close to the inputs that would have been used under conditions of competitive equilibrium. Under conditions of competitive equilibrium, the productivity coeﬃcients for factors are proportional to their average productivities (Robinson 1948; Heady 1953). The contribution of technological change to output is expressed as a function of time. 1) zero technological change is assumed—the complete change in output is achieved by increasing the quantities of inputs employed in agriculture.
These earlier models were identiﬁed as the conservation, urban-industrial impact, diﬀusion, and high pay-oﬀ input models. We also wanted to be able to incorporate the location-speciﬁc characteristics of agricultural technology in the model. Our personal experience, and our reading of the technical literature, had convinced us that, by and large, agricultural technology must be invented in the agroclimatic and socioeconomic environment in which it is to be used. These observations, combined with the induced innovation framework, turned out to be exceedingly powerful in interpreting the alternative paths of technological Induced Innovation Theory and Agricultural Development 13 change we observed, among both the presently developed and the developing countries and among developing countries characterized by diﬀerent resource endowments.
1, the assumption is made that changes in technology and prices during the period 1950–75 will permit the continuation of certain past relationships in output per unit of labor input and per unit of land input. In estimating the inputs of nonland capital and current inputs, a somewhat diﬀerent approach has been employed. 1, range from extremely large increases in the case of model I (zero technical progress with low land inputs) to relatively minor increases in model VIII (very rapid technical change with high land inputs).
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