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By E. Feldman, R. Nelson

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Extra info for Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction

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The exact mechanism for the polyuria and polydipsia is not clear. Increased renal medullary blood flow may decrease medullary hypertonicity and impair water resorption from the distal portion of the nephron. Psychogenic polydipsia secondary to thyrotoxicosis and, in some patients, concurrent renal insufficiency may also contribute to the polyuria and polydipsia. , goiter), and measurement of serum thyroxine (T4) concentration. ACROMEGALY. Excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the adult dog or cat results in acromegaly (see Chapter 2).

POSTOBSTRUCTIVE DIURESIS. , feline urologic syndrome). These animals often have dramatic elevations in BUN, which results from the obstruction and creates a marked osmotic diuresis once the obstruction is relieved. Postobstructive diuresis is self-limiting. The veterinarian, however, must be aware of this problem and maintain the animal’s hydration through aggressive fluid therapy, which can be slowly decreased over several days as the uremia clears and the osmotic diuresis declines. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) deficiency Partial or complete lack of vasopressin production by the neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus is called central diabetes insipidus (CDI).

The polyuria and polydipsia should resolve following discontinuation of the drug. If polyuria and polydipsia persist, a concurrent disorder causing polyuria and polydipsia or renal medullary solute washout should be considered. TABLE 1-5 DRUGS AND HORMONES CAUSING POLYURIA AND POLYDIPSIA IN DOGS AND CATS Anticonvulsants* Phenobarbital Primidone Dilantin Glucocorticoids* Diuretics* Mannitol Synthetic thyroid hormone supplements Amphotericin B Lithium Methoxyflurane Sodium bicarbonate Salt supplementation* Vitamin D (toxicity) * Common cause Renal medullary solute washout Loss of renal medullary solutes, most notably sodium and urea, results in loss of medullary hypertonicity and impaired ability of the nephron to concentrate the ultrafiltrate.

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