Download Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories: by W. L. Gates (auth.), A. Berger (eds.) PDF

By W. L. Gates (auth.), A. Berger (eds.)

GENERAL advent TO THE ETTORE MAJORANA overseas college OF CLIMATOLOGY The "Ettore Majorana Centre" for clinical tradition, based at Erice in 1963 through prof. Nino Zichichi, pursues the elemental target to create in Europe a cultural discussion board of excessive clinical average, that could let younger learn employees to understand present difficulties of significant curiosity within the a variety of fields of medical learn. , because the starting, its overseas faculties (over 70, this day) have actively labored in disseminating clinical tradition produced on the so much complex frontiers of human wisdom, spanning different domain names from biology to nuclear physics, earth sciences, meteorology, structure, scientific sciences etc, lately, in 1979, the foreign tuition of Climatology has been created with the aim to arrange post-doctorate cour ,;es, during which remarkable and updated outlooks, theories and leads to the climatic box needs to be provided in didactic shape. Climatic variability used to be the topic of the 1st path, in that climatic alterations signify probably the most fascinating phenomenologies to review; actually, no matter if the weather has replaced time and again some time past, so making it moderate to as­ sume that it'll achieve this sooner or later, it's nonetheless demanding to appreciate the above pointed out alterations from an hydrodynamical aspect of view.

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Extra info for Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories: NATO Advanced Study Institute First Course of the International School of Climatology, Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture, Erice, Italy, March 9–21, 1980

Sample text

We may also introduce the concept of a "climatic anomaly" (defined as the departure of a particular climatic state from the average. of a number of such states, such as the climatic anomaly of a particular January), and the concept of "climatic variability" (defined as the variance among a number of climatic states of the same kind, such as the variability of January climates). GATES t·ime periods (of the order of a month or longer) are especially useful in practical climatic work. Our observations of the atmosphere, ocean and other parts of the climate system are necessarily made over specific time periods, and the assembly and analysis of these data for specific times or states is both convenient and natural.

The solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, as shown in Figure 2, is simply a function of the earth's orbital geometry. It is largest at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in December, when the Earth is closest to the Sun and when the Sun is above the horizon 24 hours a day. In these regions and at this time maximum stratospheric temperatures are observed (28). At any latitude the energy available is the difference between the absorbed solar radiation and the infrared emission to space.

O ...... : -':-'0-: ......... ~, . \ Figure 5 Mass flux in the Hadley Cell circulation. 5 -I --- ,-I, MASS FLUX JUNE - AUGUST 150 w 100 Q. i ~ ~ gJ ~ Q ~ l'i ~ R. NEWELL AND L. S. CHIU 32 sandy soil is about 800 J kg- 1 K-1 compared with 4200 J kg- 1 K-1 for water so these longitudinal and seasonal differences are not Burprising for the surface air temperature is strongly governed by that of the underlying surface. Seasonal variations of temperature at 850 mb, 500 mb and 200 mb are plotted in Figures 6-8.

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