Download Communication Networks: Fundamental Concepts and Key by Alberto Leon-Garcia, Indra Widjaja PDF

By Alberto Leon-Garcia, Indra Widjaja

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7a shows how a switch can be used to provide the connectivity between a community of users that are within close distance of each other. The pairwise interconnection of users would require N x …N À 1† lines, which is not sustainable as N grows large. By introducing a switch, the number of lines is reduced to N. In effect, the access transmission lines are extended to a central location, and the ``network'' that provides the connectivity is reduced to equipment in a room or even a single box or chip.

In 1851 the ®rst submarine cable was established between London and Paris. Eventually, networks of telegraph stations were established, covering entire continents. In these networks a message or telegram would arrive at a telegraphswitching station, and an operator would make a routing decision based on destination address information. The operator would then store the message until the communication line became available to forward the message to the next appropriate station. This process would be repeated until the message arrived at the destination station.

Prior to the invention of telegraphy, long-distance communication depended primarily on messengers who traveled by foot, horse, or other means. In such systems a message might propagate at a rate of tens of kilometers per day. In the late 1700s, visual telegraph networks using line-of-sight semaphore systems reduced the time required to deliver a message. 2 Approaches to Network Design 17 signal in one such system in England took only 3 minutes to traverse a distance of 800 kilometers [Stumpers 1984].

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