By Kinesh Patel
In the face of knowledge overload whilst revising to your ultimate checks, what you will have is a revision booklet that offers the entire key proof you must comprehend and none that you just do not. Complete Revision Notes for clinical and Surgical Finals does simply that, featuring details in a stimulating method, which in flip allows effortless recall.
Structured by way of scientific and surgical specialties, the contents are organised in a weighted type to mirror insurance in undergraduate curricula. With pharmacology and pathology built-in all through, this moment version covers the entire key themes in:
Medicine * surgical procedure * Paediatrics * Obstetrics & Gynaecology * Psychiatry * Orthopaedics * ENT * Urology * Ophthalmology * Oncology * Public Health.
Effective use is made from student-friendly codes and bullet issues for simple details retrieval, and well known positive aspects together with textboxes, precis tables and transparent and reproducible line diagrams were retained and more advantageous. absolutely revised and up to date with the most recent clinical info, and together with new illustrations, Complete Revision Notes for scientific and Surgical Finals maintains to supply and obtainable and stimulating path to examination luck. if you happen to be aware of what's during this booklet then you definitely will comprehend sufficient to go your finals.
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Additional info for Complete Revision Notes for Medical and Surgical Finals, Second Edition
Benzylpenicillin + gentamicin); add ﬂucloxacillin in IVDUs Septic emboli, mycotic aneurysms, meningitis, intracranial haemorrhage, emboli, glomerulonephritis Ca r d i o l o g y MISCELLANEOUS HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY (HOCM) P ● A ● Sy ● Si ● Ix ● Rx ● Cx ● Left ventricular hypertrophy, especially involving the septum; varying degrees of myocardial ﬁbrosis ~50 per cent patients have a +ve family history; multiple mutations have been identiﬁed; associated with Friedrich’s ataxia Many are asymptomatic; dyspnoea, fatigue, palpitations, angina, syncope, sudden death a wave in the JVP, double apical impulse, ejection systolic murmur at lower left sternal border, pansystolic murmur at the apex, 4th heart sound ECG (LV hypertrophy, Q waves, arrhythmias), CXR (increased cardiothoracic ratio [CTR]), echo (asymmetric septal hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, small LV cavity with posterior wall motion, MR) b-blockers/verapamil to improve LV function, amiodarone as anti-arrhythmic, surgery (myotomy/myectomy), ethanol injections into the septum (causes partial infarction of the septum), cardiac pacing; avoidance of any drugs that signiﬁcantly lower the preload Arrhythmias, ischaemia, sudden death ATRIAL MYXOMA P ● A ● Sy ● Si ● Ix ● Rx ● Cx ● Benign tumour; gelatinous polypoid structure attached to the atrial septum; usually left atrium & > (; 3rd–6th decades; most are sporadic; occasionally familial (autosomal dominant) Fever, dyspnoea, weight loss, arthralgia, syncope; can mimic mitral valve disease (stenosis from the tumour prolapsing into the valve, or regurgitation from related valve trauma) Loud 1st heart sound, tumour ‘plop’ (a loud 3rd heart sound), clubbing Echo, FBC (anaemia or polycythaemia), ≠ ESR Surgical resection Peripheral or pulmonary emboli 13 M e di c i ne RESPIRATORY RESPIRATORY INVESTIGATIONS Chest radiography (CXR): be careful to look at the apices, behind the heart and costophrenic angles ● Computed tomography (CT): better at distinguishing between tissue densities and assessing lesions; high-resolution CT shows subtle parenchymal changes useful in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases; CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can diagnose pulmonary emboli in the segmental and larger pulmonary arteries ● Ventilation–perfusion scans: albumin labelled with technetium 99m FVC is administered intravenously to FEV1 demonstrate blood ﬂow, and radiolabelled xenon gas is inhaled to demonstrate ventilation.
2 in an infected effusion Glucose: low in empyema, rheumatoid, lupus, TB, malignancy Amylase: raised in acute pancreatitis, oesophageal rupture, malignancy Cytology: positive in ~60 per cent malignancy Aimed at the underlying cause If there is any respiratory compromise a pleurocentesis should be performed. 15 (a) Right pneumothorax: absence of lung markings beyond the lung edge; (b) left-sided tension pneumothorax. 16 CT scan showing extensive interstitial thickening with small cystic spaces in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary ﬁbrosis EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS (EAA) P ● A ● S ● Ix ● Rx ● Hypersensitivity reaction to various antigens Less likely to be smokers than the general population Farmer’s lung (Thermoactinomyces in mouldy hay) and bird fancier’s lung (avian protein on feathers) are most common; other antigens include isocyanates (chemical workers), Aspergillus spp.
16 CT scan showing extensive interstitial thickening with small cystic spaces in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary ﬁbrosis EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS (EAA) P ● A ● S ● Ix ● Rx ● Hypersensitivity reaction to various antigens Less likely to be smokers than the general population Farmer’s lung (Thermoactinomyces in mouldy hay) and bird fancier’s lung (avian protein on feathers) are most common; other antigens include isocyanates (chemical workers), Aspergillus spp. g. 20 Pancoast’s tumour at the left apex REFERENCES 1 The British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network British Guideline on the Management of Asthma.
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