By Crowell B.

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Extra info for Conservation Laws

Example text

D. net/ ~shawn. 30 gravitational potential energy: The skateboarder in the photo has risen from the bottom of the pool, converting kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy. After being at rest for an instant, he will go back down, converting PE back into KE. magnetic potential energy: When a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate, the poles of the compass change their distances from the earth’s north and south magnetic poles, converting magnetic potential energy into kinetic energy.

It might seem as though this arrangement would also double the work done by the tractor, but look again. As the tractor moves forward 2 meters, 1 meter of rope comes around the pulley, and the pulley moves 1 m to the left. Although the pulley exerts double the force on the stump, the pulley and stump only move half as far, so the work done on the stump is no greater that it would have been without the pulley. The same is true for any mechanical arrangement that increases or decreases force, such as the gears on a ten-speed bike.

1 Work: The Transfer of Mechanical Energy 39 kinetic energy of chemical a car work potential energy of gas work work form that is useful for doing farm work. Tractors, like cars, are extremely inefficient, and typically 90% of the energy they consume is converted directly into heat, which is carried away by the exhaust and the air flowing over the radiator. We wish to distinguish the energy that comes out directly as heat from the energy that served to accelerate a trailer or to plow a field, and we define a technical meaning of the ordinary word “work” to express the distinction: work definition of work Work is the amount of energy transferred into or out of a system, not counting the energy transferred by heat conduction.