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By Navjot S Sodhi; et al

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2010) demonstrates the potential importance of these edgerelated effects for tropical forest birds. The researchers collected data on edgerelated differences in vegetation structure and bird community composition at 31 sites in fragmented and continuous forest in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Fragments ranged from 3 to 145 ha in size, and were all located in the secondary forest patches that typify this critically threatened biome. 2). Furthermore, the magnitude of edge to interior differences on bird community composition declined markedly with patch size, and community composition was no longer affected by patch area after controlling for edge effects.

3 Area effects in tropical birds Area effects are probably the most studied aspect of habitat fragmentation. Reduction in forest area can result in losses in habitat diversity and resources, with ensuing declines in bird populations that make them more vulnerable to local extinction (Brook et al. 2003a). Small populations are more vulnerable to extinction due to their heightened susceptibility to stochastic events (Gilpin and Soulé 1986) and the loss of genetic variability (Spielman et al. 2004).

2008; Lees and Peres 2008a; Seaman and Schulze 2010). However, these same strips may play a very important role in the landscape by facilitating movement between fragments and increasing habitat connectivity (Beier and Noss 1998; Haddad 2003). Most of our knowledge on the use of forest strips by birds stems from translocation experiments that involve capturing birds, moving them away from their territories, and radio-tracking their efforts to return through the landscape (Sekercioglu 2009). 9 km from their territories, and mapped their return route across three alternative landscape elements: 150 m wide riparian corridors, 15–30 m wide fencerows, and open pasture (Gillies and Clair 2008).

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